What is fistula

What is fistula


  • 1 fistula
  • 2 causes of fistula 2.1 intestinal cutaneous fistula 2.2 intestinal fistula 2.3 vaginal fistula Anal fistula 2.4
  • 2.1 intestinal cutaneous fistula
  • 2.2 intestinal fistula
  • 2.3 vaginal fistula
  • Anal fistula 2.4
  • 3 Symptoms of fistula 3.1 fistula intestinal cutaneous 3.2 intestinal fistula 3.3 vaginal fistula 3.4 anal fistula
  • 3.1 fistula intestinal cutaneous
  • 3.2 intestinal fistula
  • 3.3 vaginal fistula
  • 3.4 anal fistula
  • 4 diagnosed with fistula
  • 5 fistula treatment
  • 6 References


The fistula (in English: Fistula) the existence of the slot is normal between the organs or body structures, and is more common in the pelvic area, but it may occur in different parts of the body, and adopt the symptoms associated with a phenomenon and treatment on site fistula, and the reason for its occurrence, and the consequent treatment fistula control symptoms, it should be noted that the fistula may take a long time to recover, and may not heal completely. [1]

The causes of fistula

Can be divided into four main fistula types, it can be the reasons depending on the type as follows: [2]

Intestinal cutaneous fistula

The fistula intestinal cutaneous (in English: Enterocutaneous) the existence of an abnormal connection between the intestine and the skin, allowing the possibility of leakage of intestinal contents or stomach through this contact, and may seep into another part of the body, or out of the body, while coming mention the most important causes of fistula intestinal cutaneous : [2]

  • Bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis (in English: Ulcerative colitis), or Crohn's disease (in English: Crohn's disease).
  • Duodenal ulcer flukes.
  • Exposure to shock, such as those resulting from the shooting, or appeal.
  • Infection.
  • Undergo intestinal surgery.

Intestinal fistula

The intestinal fistula (in English: Enteroenteric) the formation of a connection between two parts of the minute, [3] the intestine and include the reasons for this situation as follows: [4]

  • Infection or diverticula diverticulosis (in English: Diverticulitis).
  • Pancreatitis.
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Malignant tumors.
  • Entry of foreign objects into the body.
  • Undergo prior to surgery.

Vaginal fistula

Can be defined Fistula vaginal that slot is a natural link between the vagina and another member, such as: bladder, or colon, or rectum, and in fact there are several types of vaginal fistula (in English: Vaginal), including: fistula ureteral vaginal (in English: Ureterovaginal), fistula urethral vaginal (in English: Urethrovaginal), fistula rectal and vaginal (in English: Rectovaginal fistula), fistula colonic vaginal (in English: Colovaginal fistula), fistula intestinal and vaginal (in English: Enterovaginal fistula), and VVF (in English: vesicovaginal fistula), [5 ] in general, due to the occurrence of vaginal fistula are many factors, such as: [6]

  • Perineum was torn, or infection.
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Undergo radiation treatment resulting from pelvic cancer.
  • Undergo surgery to the back wall of the vagina, or perineum, or anus, or rectum, including hysterectomy.

Anal fistula

The existence of anal fistula develops a small tunnel between the end of the intestine and the skin near the anus, and in fact, there are many factors and causes that may lead to the occurrence of this situation, including: [7]

  • Anal abscess (in English: Anal abscess).
  • Crohn's disease.
  • Diverticulitis.
  • Purulent inflammation of the sweat glands (in English: Hidradenitis suppurativa).
  • Tuberculosis infection (in English: Tuberculosis), or human immunodeficiency virus (in English: Human Immunodeficiency Virus).
  • Undergo surgery near the anus.

Symptoms of fistula

Intestinal cutaneous fistula

The symptoms associated with the infection of the intestinal fistula skin as follows: [8]

  • Suffering from diarrhea.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Incidence of drought.

Intestinal fistula

There are no specific symptoms of intestinal fistula, as symptoms may be caused by infection of certain health condition associated with fistula, or causing it, and in general can explain these symptoms the situation as follows: [9]

  • Abdominal pain, or feeling pain when touched.
  • The emergence of mass abdominal clear.
  • diarrhea.
  • Weight loss.
  • Bethlehem.

Vaginal fistula

Symptoms of vaginal fistula include the following: [10]

  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • diarrhea.
  • Tummy ache.
  • Bethlehem.
  • Recurrent infection.
  • Weight loss.
  • With the passage of gases smell foul, or feces, or pus from the vagina.

Anal fistula

Can be the most prominent symptoms of anal fistula statement as follows: [11]

  • High body temperature, infection and chills.
  • The appearance of pus bloody foul-smelling surrounding the anus hole, may hide the feeling of pain after draining fistula.
  • Suffering from pain and swelling in the area around the anus area.
  • Suffering from bleeding.
  • Skin irritation of the area surrounding the anus as a result of continuous discharge.
  • The general feeling of fatigue.
  • The appearance of anal abscess frequently.
  • Pain associated with bowel movements.

Fistula diagnosis

It is diagnosed with fistula in most cases through physical examination, and scanning tomography, may require subjecting the patient to other tests, such as: barium enema anorectal (in English: Barium enema), and colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopy abdominal upper, may include procedures dye injection in the diagnosis of fistula, and then take a picture using the X-ray, and in some cases, the patient is subjected to intravenous pyelography (in English: intravenous pyelogram). [12]

Fistula treatment

Treatment depends on the primary cause that led to the development of fistula, and the extent of injury in this case, as the fistula treatment in many cases, through the control of the main causes that led to this situation occurs, and in most cases prescribe antibiotics in order to stop the discharge of fistula, reduce of infection, which leads to recovery without further complications, and may include treatment to stop eating foods, where the patient is provided with the nutrients it needs through a vein, and if the fistula is connected to the skin would still need to use creams and other treatments to protect the skin from damage and infection, and in this context referred to the possibility of resorting to surgery as a treatment for fistula in some cases, especially if they do not find the actions taken and the treatment used useful in the control of the fistula, as is the surgery in this case to open fistula and emptied completely, so the introduction of a rope or string in the channel; To make sure discharged, or may constitute a surgeon paganism of tissue to close the internal imbalance in the intestinal wall; In order to avoid entering the intestinal contents, and states that the surgery may be open or laparoscopic, and it should be noted that this surgery may be involved in some of the risks, such as: smooth, or repetition, or infection. [13]


  • ↑ "Fistula", www.macmillan.org.uk, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Enterocutaneous Fistula", www.ucsfhealth.org, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Entero-enteric fistula", www.radiopaedia.org, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Enterocolic Fistula Associated With an Intestinal Lymphoma", www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Vaginal fistula", www.mayoclinic.org, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Vaginal Fistula", www.healthlinkbc.ca, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Overview - Anal fistula", www.nhs.uk, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Enterocutaneous Fistula", www.ucsfhealth.org, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ Neelu Pal, "Intestinal Fistula Surgery Clinical Presentation"، emedicine.medscape.com, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Fistulas", www.urogyn.coloradowomenshealth.com, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Anal Fistula", www.my.clevelandclinic.org, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ Amber J. Tresca , "Fistula Types, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis"، www.verywellhealth.com, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ "Management of fistulas", www.healthengine.com.au, Retrieved 17-5-2019. Edited.


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