- 1 Internet
- 2 Internet Services
- 3 stages of the evolution of the Internet 3.1 Primary peripheral networks 3.2 research networks 3.3 private, public and popular networks
- 3.1 Primary peripheral networks
- 3.2 research networks
- 3.3 private, public and popular networks
- 4 new design
- 5 Web Internet
- 6 Internet protocols
- 7 References
The Internet is a global connection for data transmission system across different types of media, and can be described as a global network connecting different networks, whether private networks, or public, or commercial, or academic, or government by wireless technologies, optical fiber, and uses computer transmission control protocol / Internet Protocol (in English: TCP / IP) that can provide him with host access to the Internet, Internet has raised regular networks to international standards standards.  
Internet users rely on multiple technologies for applications and networks, and the use of services provided by the Internet, such that: 
- Audio and video conferencing services.
- Watch and download movies and games.
- Data transfer and share files.
- Social networks.
- Instant messaging or chat.
- Online shopping.
- Financial services.
Stages of the evolution of the Internet
The Internet has developed considerably during the time period from the fifties to the present, where there was an increase proportional to the size of networks and the diversity of services offered, forcing designers to overcome the incompatibility problems between the computer systems and components and data management movement, and access to an international agreement on technical standards , which led to the development of operating systems and expansion in the field of research on the theory of queuing (in English: queuing theory), and network functions are divided into successive layers is governed by a standard protocol and a set of rules that are implemented in software or hardware, in addition to the technical development of Internet design is not a central joint, which opened the door of innovation and encouraged the informal cooperation all over the world. 
Primary peripheral networks
Were not the first computers designed to interact with users or to communicate with other computers, then began to experience transfer data from one device to another computer scientists, and were forms of networks in the fifties and early sixties systems to connect peripheral devices to the computer instead of connecting computers to each other. [3 ]
Most of the research was related to computer science funded by the US military because of the cold war with the existing Union Alsoviatian that, including the Sage project (in English: SAGE), a defensive system computerized early warning reveals rocket attacks, the project consisted of centers, each containing a computer receives the data over the phone lines from radar installations and military bases, and use this project technology modem (English: modem) and developed, where the digital computer data transfer (in English: digital) to analog signals (in English: analog signals) can be sent over the telephone network, then became the modems are available for home use in 1958. 
Provided the capitalist system and the growth of transport and communications driving force for the establishment of systems of large communications networks, to enable companies to share information with each other, such as airlines and stock trading companies, with American Airlines Inc. has established a company IBM (in English: IBM) Cyber system (in English: SABRE) to book tickets online document to the Sage system, which reached two thousand terminal network in the United States and one central computer, also established automated pricing system for agencies in the United States network of stock prices in 1970. 
Peripheral networks relied on a pivotal model (in English: hub-and-spoke model) connecting multiple users to a central computer and one, in the period from the late sixties to the late seventies built scientists more complex networks involving multiple computers, and try researchers new techniques to break down barriers which prevent the exchange of data between different computer systems, which led to the development in the field of networking has allowed the participation of rare and expensive computers that have increased in turn, access while reducing costs, and the ability to exchange data and the possibility of working and communication between users in different places, and the opportunity to develop theoretical concepts and applied in practice. 
Of the most important initial research networks; Network ARBA Net American (Balangelzah: ARPANET), and NBC all British Mark (English: NPL Mark), Network French Sichaelades (Blaangelazah: CYCLADES), and used this technology networks, new contacts are called mutual packets (in English: Packet switching), where split the data desired sent to the small units called packets that are sent over the network individually, and allowed this to increase the efficiency of links, in addition to the ability to send packets from the same connection to their destination in different ways, allowing the distribution of traffic between the links, and the response to any breakdown in network by directing traffic to another place, providing flexibility and prevent congestion and increased network reliability. 
The most successful electronic application of research networks is the e-mail, which has become a standard service in the early seventies, and won popular surprise because it presented an unprecedented opportunity for continuous interaction with remote users, and although the network were not available to the general public but it has produced solutions to technical problems subsequent, and was the birthplace of an important resource for innovation in the future, and early efforts to build international networks multiple parties contributed to global cooperation for the development of the Internet. 
Private, public and popular networks
In the mid-seventies coincided with the emergence of research networks, three other systems are: private networks provided by computer companies, and public networks that have been built by national telecommunications companies, popular networks of individuals. 
And it used public data networks, low-cost same software and connections simple dial-up mail exchange and other services between informal users called popular networks, and was the best known Leoz Net network (in English: USENET) using Unix protocols, and network bit Net (in English: BITNET) using protocols IBM, and provided these networks connect to people who do not have access to the infrastructure of official networks. 
Scientists and researchers wanted to link the network ARBA Net Vtm introduction of DARPA system (in English: DARPA) which uses two new networks to link them; Radio communications wireless and satellite, but faced some problems wireless Valouselat were unreliable, and satellites faced delays, in addition to the ARBA protocols Net original were not suitable for such a system is interconnected diverse, continue to search for new technology to connect. 
Pushing technical development to increase the use of local networks, which led to the invention of Ethernet network, by Robert Metcalfe, who benefited from a previous network called Olohanat in design, and the Ethernet based on a new technology called RAM that allowed many users to share a communication channel without the need for direct action complex, also it helped the simplicity of access design random to make it a low-cost large number of users, and in the early eighties Ethernet network commercially available have become and approved at universities, corporations and other institutions, but random access systems did not guarantee a reliable showed the need for a new system. [ 3]
Internet architecture has evolved to include two main components: 
- It is a set of protocols: Transmission Control / Internet Protocol (in English: TCP / IP), whose function is to set up and manage a connection between the two computers to ensure a reliable connection between the hosts protocol.
- Use special computer devices called gates (in English: gateways) as an interface between different networks, and gates known now as the routers (in English: routers) that determine the path you should go to get packets from one network to another.
One of the important inventions that contributed to the global growth of the Internet is the domain name system (in English: Domain), established by Paul Mukabatric in 1984, which works to cancel the search for addresses by creating groups of names called domains, and special hardware computers called servers (in English : servers) that maintains the rules of address data that correspond to each domain name. 
Web and Internet
The Internet huge network of networks and infrastructure to connect millions of computers together globally, which enables any two computers to communicate through him, and the World Wide Web (in English: World Wide Web) is a model for the exchange of information and how to access it, was built based on the network Internet. 
Internet uses many protocols, including: 
- E-mail protocol, which includes several protocols including; Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (English: SMTP), and Access Protocol Internet Message (in English: IMAP).
- File Transfer Protocol (English: FTP).
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol (English: HTTP).
- Network News Transfer Protocol (English: NNTP).
- ^ أ ب "Internet", www.techopedia.com, Retrieved 28-12-2018. Edited.
- ↑ "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)", www.techopedia.com, Retrieved 28-12-20018. Edited.
- ^ A b c t w H x D y G GHI Janet Abbate, "The Internet: Global Evolution and Challenges", www.bbvaopenmind.com, Retrieved 27-12-2018. Edited.
- ↑ Vangie Beal, "Internet"، www.webopedia.com, Retrieved 27-12-2018. Edited.
- ↑ Jim Farthing, "Types of Internet Protocol"، www.techwalla.com, Retrieved 28-12-2018. Edited.
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