Stomach cancer and its symptoms

Stomach cancer and its symptoms


  • 1 Overview of stomach cancer
  • 2 types of stomach cancer
  • 3 symptoms of stomach cancer
  • 4 stages of stomach cancer
  • 5 causes stomach cancer
  • 6 diagnosed with stomach cancer
  • 7 treatment of stomach cancer 7.1 surgical removal 7.2 Radiation Therapy 7.3 Chemotherapy 7.4 drugs target 7.5 immunotherapy
  • 7.1 surgical removal
  • 7.2 Radiation Therapy
  • 7.3 Chemotherapy
  • 7.4 drugs target
  • 7.5 immunotherapy
  • 8 References

Overview of stomach cancer

Known as the stomach (in English Cancer: Stomach Cancer) or (in English: Gastric cancer) as a type of cancer that begins in the habit of the inner lining of the stomach and spreads to deeper levels over time, and may extend to neighboring organs such as the liver (in English: Liver), pancreas (in English: pancreas), and others, one of the most common types of cancer prevalent in the world, [1] and located the stomach on the left side of the upper part of the abdomen, a muscular bag receives food from the esophagus (in English: esophagus), and that through valve stomach (in English: Gastroesophageal junction), which constitutes the confluence of the esophagus stomach point, and secrete stomach many enzymes important hormones for digestion, it is worth mentioning that the stomach is divided into five parts, Nfsalha as comes according to their location from top to bottom, ie, starting from the adjacent esophageal and the end of the adjacent part of the small intestine: [2] [3]

  • Slot-hearted: (English: Cardia), which is the closest part of the esophagus.
  • Stomach: (English bottom: Fundus), which forms the upper part of the stomach.
  • Stomach: (English body: Corpus), which is the main part of the stomach.
  • Laurel: (English: Antrum), which forms the bottom of the stomach, where the food is mixed with gastric juice.
  • Section: (English: Pylorus), which is a valve that controls the discharge of food from the stomach into the small intestine.

As the stomach of several layers, where composed is a mucous membrane (in English: Mucosa), the first and the interior of the stomach layer which secrete acids and enzymes, and most cases of gastric cancer in which the beginning of the show, and then followed by the layer under the mucosa (in English: Submucosa), then the muscle layer (in English : Muscularis propria), which moves in order to mix the contents of the stomach, and then layer under serological (in English: subserosa), and finally serological class (in English: serosa), which encapsulate these two layers wall of the stomach, it is worth mentioning that stomach cancer is more intense whenever he moved to the deeper layers of them, [3] and likes to note that stomach cancer ranks sixth in terms of prevalence compared to other types of cancers, according to the reports of the World Health Organization (English: World Health Organization) and Acronym WHO for the year 2018. [4]

Types of stomach cancer

Types of stomach cancer include the following:

  • Adenocarcinoma: The adenocarcinoma (in English: Adenocarcinoma) more types of stomach cancers prevalent in 90%, which is a cancer that begins to appear in the mucous layer of the stomach specifically from the epithelium or epithelial (in English: Epithelial tissue). [5]
  • Stomach cancer lymphatic: (English: Gastric lymphoma), a cancer that affects the tissues of the immune system in the stomach.
  • Tumor Alsdoa gastrointestinal: (English: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor) and Acronym GIST, this tumor appears in the smooth muscle tissue (in English: Smooth muscle tissue) of the stomach, specifically in the cells called cells of Cajal interstitial (in English: Interstitial cell of Cajal), this might be the tumor is benign or malignant.
  • Tumor carcinoid: (English: Carcinoid tumor), very rare tumors and slow evolution that begins in the cells of the nervous system (in English: nervous system), and the device [[Ma_ha_algdd_alsme | endocrine].

Symptoms of stomach cancer

  • Incidence of indigestion, heartburn or stomach, and discomfort in the stomach.
  • Anorexia.
  • The incidence of fatigue and nausea.
  • The presence of blood in the stool or the appearance of colored stools black.
  • Feeling bloated even after eating small meals.
  • Vomiting after meals.
  • Lose weight.
  • The feeling of pain in the stomach, especially after eating.
  • Weakness and fatigue.

It should be noted that some diseases and other health problems may cause similar symptoms frequently and so the appearance does not mean pieces of stomach cancer, for example, cause reflux gastric reflux is known among the people's disease GERD some of the symptoms listed above, but this does not eliminate the need to see a doctor in the event of the appearance of these symptoms or Azdiadha worse or when you differ, as should be noted that if these symptoms associated with the presence of cancer in its initial stages, this raises the chance of hospitalization him greatly. [7]

To learn more about the symptoms of stomach cancer can read the following article: (symptoms of stomach cancer).

Stages of stomach cancer

Knowing the stage of gastric cancer in choosing the most appropriate treatment for the patient, and comes in detail the stages of stomach cancer: [8]

  • The first stage: the presence of cancer is limited at this stage on the first layer of the fabric of the envelope of the esophagus or stomach with a possibility of spread to some lymph nodes (in English: Lymph nodes) only nearby.
  • Second stage: deepening cancer in which this stage, where up to the muscular tissue of the wall of the stomach or esophagus, with the possibility of reaching more lymph nodes.
  • Stage III: The cancer at this stage has spread to all layers of the esophagus or stomach, and hit some adjacent tissue, or small size may be cancer, but its spread in the lymph nodes became larger and larger scale.
  • Stage IV: up cancer at this stage to other areas beyond the body.

Causes stomach cancer

Did not specify a clear and specific reason for the beginning of the growth of cancer cells in the stomach, but there are many risk factors that raise the percentage of infection, it is worth mentioning that these factors do not cause stomach cancer directly, but only may increase the likelihood of infection as previously mentioned; As some may get cancer without any of the risk factors that we will come to mention they have, while others may not get cancer despite the availability of several risk factors have, but knowing the risk factors that raise the chance of stomach cancer and avoided contributes greatly to reduce the likelihood of injury by, these factors include the following: [9] [10] [11]

  • Age: increase the incidence of stomach cancer in people who are over the age of 55 years; Since most of the injured in Alstanyiat or seventies of the age.
  • Gender: where the men are exposed to infection with stomach cancer at a rate of up to twice the likelihood of injury to women do.
  • Infection: MRSA linked to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or stomach (in English: Helicobacter pylori) injury stomach cancer, as well as caused by a lot of infections and stomach ulcers.
  • Tarih family patients: This is linked to the presence of certain genetic diseases or injury of a family member as a parent, or their children, brothers or stomach cancer.
  • Ethnicity: where the incidence of stomach cancer higher for those with black skin, and Hispanics, Asians, especially the Japanese.
  • Diet: prepared foods that contain a large amount of salt is linked to cancer as well as smoked foods.
  • Smoking and drinking alcohol.
  • Obesity (in English: Obesity).
  • Conducting previous surgery or injury of certain health conditions such as stomach surgery, or anemia malignant, or lack of stomach acid, [10] When talking about the stomach valve cancer, it is most associated with reflux gastric reflux (in English: Gastrointestinal reflux disease) which is Bartjaa stomach acids into the esophagus. [12]

To learn more about the causes of stomach cancer can read the following article: (causes stomach cancer).

Diagnosis of gastric cancer

There are many tests that can be made for the diagnosis of stomach cancer, among them the following:

  • Physical examination and medical history: (English: Physical exam), the doctor looking any signs indicate the presence of cancer, such as blocks is unusual, as is access to patient history is important as it includes access to the health of the patient habits, diseases, and previous treatments that underwent .
  • Blood tests Chemistry: (English: Blood chemistry studies) are through these tests to detect the amount of certain substances in the blood produced by organs and tissues of the body, for example, are examined CEA (English: Carcinoembryonic antigen), which is produced in larger quantities of cells cancer have at least half of people with stomach cancer. [13] [14]
  • Imaging examination swallowing barium: (English: Barium swallow) or examination of the upper digestive device series (in English: upper GI series), drink the patient before undergoing this test liquid contains a compound barium; Where this fluid encapsulates the esophagus and stomach to detect the presence of any abnormal areas when photographed through the use of filming X-rays.
  • Upper endoscopy: (English: Upper endoscopy), the doctor used in this assay and a long flexible tube, a small provider with a camera and lighting; Where the doctor enters through the mouth to examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine, and if you notice any abnormal parts of the doctor may take a biopsy of them examined by the laboratory. [15]
  • Computed Tomography: (English: CT scan), or as it is called computerized tomography (English: Computerized tomography); And a cross-sectional detailed soft tissue is taken pictures in the body, where this show stomach images clearly from which to determine the site of infection with cancer, can also help X-CT to determine the stage of cancer, and whether the surgery may be a good choice for the treatment or not. [ 15]
  • Biopsy: (English: Biopsy), is taking a sample of tissue or stomach and examine the cells under a microscope to check for any sign of the presence of cancer, usually this examination when undergo colonoscopy, it is worth mentioning that the biopsy is considered screening only through which confirm the presence of general cancer definitively, and the doctor and other checks to help in the diagnosis if you can not get a biopsy. [13] [16]

In addition to cancer diagnosis has doctors applied many other tests to check its spread to other areas of the body other than those started them and called the then immigration Aserrtanih cells or metastasis, or metastasis (in English: Metastasis), [16] and include tests that the doctor have ordered when you confirm the presence of gastric cancer to help determine the size of the cancer and the extent of its spread and thus determine the appropriate treatment of him as follows: [17]

  • Ultrasound imaging (English: Ultrasound scan).
  • Tomography.
  • Positron Emission Tomography (in English: PET-CT scan).
  • Laparoscopic or laparoscopic (in English: Laparoscopy).

To learn more about the diagnosis of gastric cancer can read the following article: (diagnosis of stomach cancer).

Treatment of gastric cancer

Treatment of cancer depends stomach as mentioned earlier on the stage in addition to the general health of the patient and preferences, [8] and generally include treatment options of surgery, chemotherapy (in English: Chemotherapy), and radiation therapy (in English: Radiation therapy), in addition to pharmacological treatments. [18]

Surgical removal

The eradication of cancer in addition to the existing full part of the healthy tissue surrounding the primary objective of the surgery, and the different options for surgery; As a doctor may remove only the cancer cells if the cancer is small, and in its initial stages by endoscopy, whether the cancer is larger may have to remove the infected part of the stomach any gastrectomy partial (in English: Subtotal gastrectomy), or may resort doctor to remove stomach whole and some adjacent tissue known as the removal of the total stomach (in English: total gastrectomy) will then be linked to the esophagus minute, and in other cases of bowel may be disposed of near gastric lymph nodes, and the goal of surgery in the stages of the stomach advanced cancer that can not be treated with surgery relieve the symptoms associated with him only. [8]

Radiation therapy

The use of radiation therapy in advanced cases to alleviate the symptoms suffered by the patient, and depends the working principle of radiation therapy on radiation used for cancer cells to target and kill her, which is commonly used in the treatment of gastric cancer, for fear of damage to neighboring organs, as doctors may seek refuge for all of chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy before undergoing surgery to help reduce the size of the existing cancer, and to facilitate the eradication of surgery, or may have recourse after surgery eradication; To ensure that the killing of the remaining cancer cells after conducting. [18]


Chemotherapy depends on receiving anti-cancer drugs that destroy turn cancer cells, and may be resorting to chemotherapy before surgery to reduce the size of the cancer to make it easier for the surgeon excised, or after to reduce the risk of cancer cells reappear, and are given chemotherapy, either intravenously or through a central venous line; Ie by the large veins in the body in the arm or chest, it is worth mentioning that chemotherapy causes a variety of side effects such as feeling sick and tired Alhdidn, loss of appetite, weight loss, hair loss, and diarrhea or constipation. [19]

Targeted drugs

The working principle of targeted medicines depends (in English: Targeted medications) to identify cancer cells and begin to attack without harming healthy cells, and examples of antibodies monoclonal (in English: Monoclonal antibodies) which are manufactured in laboratories based on one type of immune cells, and the advantage of this anti-ability of objects to distinguish certain substances appear on cancer cells or natural materials helps cancer cells grow and then link these materials in order to kill cancer cells or prevent them from spreading and growth, and examples of this type of medication two drugs are accorded by intravenous injection and two trastuzumab (in English: trastuzumab) and Alrameosaromab (in English: Ramucirumab), both used in the fourth stage of gastric cancer, which can not be disposed of with surgery or in the event of recurrence of stomach cancer, while the second category of targeted medicines multi-kinase inhibitors include (in English: Multikinase inhibitors ) which is based on the principle of its work to penetrate the cell membrane and inhibition of specific proteins We need the cancer cell division and growth. Examples include drug Rijuravinnib (in English: Regorafenib), which has been studied for the treatment of gastric cancer in the fourth stage, which can not be disposed of with surgery or in the event of a repeat infection. [13] It should be noted that this type of drugs used combined with chemotherapy in the habit. [8]

Immune therapy

Are immune therapy (in English: Immunotherapy) or the so-called biological therapy (in English: Biologic therapy) use of materials within the body or in the laboratory are manufactured to play in turn stimulate the body's immunity and directed and restore defenses nature of the body against cancer cells, an option is invoked normally in advanced cases of cancer in those who have undergone Alajan or more previously, examples include the checkpoint immune inhibitors (in English: immune checkpoint inhibitor). [18] [13]


  • ↑ Cleveland Clinic medical professional (2019-2-17), "Stomach Cancer"،, Retrieved 2019-12-17. Edited.
  • ↑ "Picture of the Stomach",, Retrieved 30-12-2019. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team (2017-12-14), "What Is Stomach Cancer?"،, Retrieved 2019-12-17. Edited.
  • ↑ "Cancer",,2018-9-12، Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ↑ "Stomach Cancer Types",, Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ↑ editorial staff (2018-10-11), "Stomach Cancer"،, Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ↑ "Symptoms -Stomach cancer",,2019-10-21، Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت ث Mayo Clinic Staff (2018-5-19), "Stomach cancer"،, Retrieved 2019-12-23. Edited.
  • ↑ "Stomach Cancer",,2017-7-18، Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Stomach Cancer: Risk Factors",,2019-1, Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ↑ "Why does Japan have a high incidence of gastric cancer? Comparison of gastritis between UK and Japanese patients",, Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ↑ Mayo Clinic Staff (2018-5-19), "Stomach cancer"،, Retrieved 2019-12-20. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت ث "Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version",,2019-6-5، Retrieved 2019-12-24. Edited.
  • ↑ "Stomach cancer",,2016-11، Retrieved 2019-12-22. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Tests for Stomach Cancer",, Retrieved 22-12-2019.
  • ^ أ ب Cancer.Net Editorial Board (2019-1), "Stomach Cancer: Diagnosis"،, Retrieved 2019-12-22. Edited.
  • ↑ "Tests and next steps -Stomach cancer",,2019-10-21، Retrieved 2019-12-22. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت Adam Felman (2019-9-2), "What to know about stomach cancer"،, Retrieved 2019-12-23. Edited.
  • ↑ "Chemotherapy treatment",, Retrieved 30-12-2019. Edited.


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