- 1 Renault phenomenon
- 2 types of phenomenon Renault
- 3 symptoms of the phenomenon Raynaud
- 4 diagnosis Raynaud's phenomenon
- 5 treatment of Raynaud's disease 5.1 Pharmaceutical treatments 5.2 Medical and surgical procedures
- 5.1 Pharmaceutical treatments
- 5.2 Medical and surgical procedures
- 6 References
Known as Raynaud's phenomenon or what is known as disease Raynaud (English: Raynaud's disease) as a disorder that affects the blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in the amount of blood reaching the parties, and often in the fingers or toes, and sometimes blood vessels in may be affected nose, or lips, or the outer parts of the ear, leading to a change in the color of the affected part, it is possible to change its color to white or blue color, it is possible to become cool and sedated, and is characterized by this disorder occurrence of bouts of contractions of vessels, called bouts angiospastic (English: Vasospastic attacks), which cause frequent contractions in the small blood vessels in the fingers and toes, in response to the low-temperature, or as a result of exposure to neurological and emotional situations, it is worth mentioning that approximately 5% of people in the world suffer from Raynaud's phenomenon, but it is more common among women and girls, particularly in the age group of less than 25 years.  
Types of Renault phenomenon
Divides Raynaud's disease due to the cause of its occurrence, the two presidents, namely: primary Raynaud phenomenon (in English: Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon): The phenomenon of Raynaud's secondary (in English: Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon), and is considered the primary Raynaud phenomenon most common, affecting people who do not suffer from any diseases or problems may cause Raynaud's disease, it is worth mentioning that about 60-90% of infected cases, the phenomenon of primary Raynaud, are women aged between 15-40 years, and as for the secondary Raynaud's phenomenon is less common than the first type, often what are the result of a disease or a problem with a healthy latent, is Raynaud's phenomenon secondary common among people who suffer from connective tissue diseases (in English: connective tissue diseases), as some of these diseases cause thickening of the small blood vessels, and makes them more prone to shrinking, leading to the lack of the amount of blood reaching the fingers or toes, and is worth us to point out that about 85-95% of patients with limited skin stiffness (in English: Scleroderma), Raynaud's disease are infected, and about one-third of people with lupus Hamma Comprehensive Mieh (English: Systemic lupus erythematosus) are infected with Raynaud, in addition, this phenomenon may affect people suffering from other diseases of connective tissue; Including Sjogren's syndrome (in English: Sjögren's syndrome), and muscle inflammation and skin (in English: Dermatomyositis), and inflammation of the muscles (in English: polymyositis).  
Symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon
May appear on the patient's disease Raynaud some of the signs and symptoms, and adopt these symptoms on the severity of episodes of vascular spasm, when a bout spasm of blood vessels occur, become sensory nerves irritated because of the lack of oxygen, it is worth mentioning that the lack of oxygen may cause ulcers, these sores if not address infection may result in gangrene (English: gangrene) in some rare cases, symptoms include Raynaud phenomenon as follows:  
- Cooler in the fingers or toes.
- Change in the color of the skin in response to cold or stress, as the skin color becomes white, then gradually turns blue.
- Feeling of numbness, tingling feeling or pain or stinging, at higher temperatures or the demise of the stress, and then turn the skin color to dark red, swollen fingers to drive, and the injured feel itchy.
Diagnosis of the phenomenon Raynaud
Usually it is diagnosed Raynaud's disease when he asks the doctor about the symptoms felt by the patient, and the times of occurrence, and the frequency of its appearance, and their causes, and then the doctor examine hands fingers and toes, may be used in some special doctors magnifying glass; Called skin telescope (in English: Dermoscope) to examine small blood vessels, which feed the fingers, and discover if they are deformed or swollen, and in some cases may Lilja doctor to request a blood test and tests again, when symptoms indicate infection with Raynaud secondary resulting from other health problems and in autoimmune disorders.  
Treatment of Raynaud's disease
To date, there is no definitive cure for Raynaud's, but there are some procedures that reduce exposure to bouts of vascular spasm, as they can ease the severity of symptoms, and prevent damage to the tissue. For simple cases of Raynaud's phenomenon, maintaining the warmth of the parties through wearing socks and gloves, it can help significantly, while in moderate and severe cases, the doctor to the following treatments:  may resort
The drugs used to relieve the symptoms of the phenomenon of Renault mention the following: 
- Alpha-blocker receptor 1: (English: Alpha-blockers), can alpha blockers receptors inhibit Alnuribernfrin (English: Norepinephrine) from functioning in the reduction of the blood vessels, and examples of these drugs: doxazosin (English: Doxazosin) and Brazauzan (English: Prazosin ).
- Calcium channel: (English: Calcium channel blockers) blockers help calcium channel blockers of the pyridine type of binary hydrogen (in English: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers), the expansion of small blood vessels in the hands and feet fingers, which helps to increase blood flow to these vessels, examples of these drugs: amlodipine (English: Amlodipine) and nifedipine (English: nifedipine).
- Nitroglycerine can be used in English: Nitroglycerin) topical ointment Nitroglycerine (in alleviating symptoms by improving blood flow.
Medical and surgical procedures
In severe cases of Raynaud's disease, it is possible to perform surgery nerves by the surgeon makes small incisions and stripping the blood vessels affected nerves, so as to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures, but it is possible that this procedure works in some cases, it is also possible to use chemical injection (English : Chemical injections) to inject chemicals, prevent nerve fibers from doing narrowing of small blood vessels, and examples of these chemicals: drugs topical (English: Local anesthetics), and mesotherapy (English: botox), and this treatment effective to some extent, but its effect may go away with time, leading to the need for repeat treatment. 
- ↑ "Raynaud's phenomenon", www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب "Raynaud's Phenomenon", my.clevelandclinic.org, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Raynaud Syndrome", www.msdmanuals.com, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Raynaud's disease", www.mayoclinic.org, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Raynaud's Phenomenon", www.medicinenet.com, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت ث "What you need to know about Raynaud's disease", www.medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Raynaud’s Disease and Raynaud’s Syndrome", www.webmd.com, Retrieved 9-5-2019. Edited.
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