- 1 paper material
- 2 paper industry from rice straw 2.1 raw materials 2.2 processing of raw materials 2.3 paper pulp industry
- 2.1 raw materials
- 2.2 processing of raw materials
- 2.3 paper pulp industry
- 3 References
Paper material is a thin material, with flat shape are produced primarily by natural fiber pressure, consisting of cellulose, it is worth mentioning that the Chinese are the first started making paper, where he was in the first century AD, have used bamboo stalks plant hollows from within the industry process, as well as fishing nets, and rags, knowing that the paper production process was made of these materials during the wash even lose their colors, then Dgaha by private mills to become a soft dough, then add water to it, and mixing them well until they become like liquid soap, and then the mixture are filtered, draw fiber knit, publish them over the flat board, and left until completely dry, and after the dry process begins polishing; Where paper is refined through starch sprayed polychlorinated, flour, pressed back and forth, and then left to dry again; Leading to the production of smooth paper, and fine can write it. 
Paper from rice straw industry
The use of unfair trees in the pulp industry had a negative impact on the environment; Which lead to climate changes of the Earth, increasing carbon dioxide ratio of carbon, as well as the resulting environmental pollution from the consumption of natural resources, and the emergence of global warming, the phenomenon of the ozone hole, high paper prices after forest cutting, has been summoned by the presence of an alternative source for the manufacture of paper pulp is timber trees; Which showed the paper industry of rice straw resulting from the cultivation of rice, which is not fit for food uses, or human, the following mention of how the paper industry of rice straw: 
The resulting from the cultivation of rice the main material rice straw used in the paper manufacturing process, from agricultural residues, it is worth mentioning that it has been used in the paper industry for several reasons, the most important of its low price; The cost per ton of rice straw up to $ 35 in the United States, and 70 pounds in the Arab Republic of Egypt, it is also available in large quantities, and constantly renewed; This is because it can not be dispensed with rice cultivation, which is considered one of the most important sources of food for the human being, lies the importance of using rice straw in the paper industry in preserving the environment, so by reducing the pressure on the various trees consumption in the manufacture of paper pulp, and despite the great interest for the use of straw rice in the paper industry; But the industry faces many challenges, productivity is carried at; Because of the high costs of transport of rice straw, and storage, and the length of the period of drying, and may cause the process of environmentally polluted; As a result of the discharge of black liquor into the resulting waterways, or sea. 
The analysis of rice straw, he found that it contains a ratio ranging between (43-49)% of cellulose, and (12-16%) of Allegnan, and (23-28%) of Pintosan, and (15-20%) of ash, and (14-17%) of silica, and it is clear that the disadvantages of the main source for the manufacture of paper fit on a high proportion of the subjects of ash, silica, compared with other materials used in paper manufacturing, and otherwise the rice straw is one of the economic material, and good in the manufacturing process of pulp. 
Raw materials processing
Are initially processing rice straw, and remove impurities it, Kaldhun, candles, Allegnan, and silica, which is considered harmful materials industry pulp, note that it is disposed of these materials chemically by soaking the rice straw in caustic soda concentrated, resulting in this fluid process chemical known as black liquid (in English: black liquer), it is worth mentioning that this is not the use of the material in the manufacturing process; Due to the increase in the proportion of silica in the rice straw; Where they are disposed of, and discharged into the waterways, or sea. 
It should be noted that there is another method that can extract fiber cellulose, and the separation of impurities by, through soak rice straw in acids, Khamad acetic, formic acid, and the resulting pulp bleached paper directly, and you know this method as the (Avidel process), note that it is considered more effective than the use of caustic soda concentrated; As the proportion of pulp derived from them, amounting to about 48.7%, while the soda treatment can be extracted about 33% of pulp max. 
Paper pulp industry
It is noteworthy that after extracting the fiber cellulose in one of the previous two methods, paper pulp manufacturing process begins; Where the fibers are cellulose cut into small pieces using sharp knives, and then these pieces are placed in the reactor, or sterilization device, which contains caustic soda solution at the concentration of 14%, and is controlled in the reactor pressure, and temperature. 
Then the fiber is removed from the reactor, and filtered water, through Tngelha in a special sieve, and then compressed mechanically, and are vaporized heat; To remove water residues in them; And even dry content of up to about (90-95%), then the starch is added, and materials sizing to the fiber, and mixed well, and may be added white pigments, sealants to the dough; So as to give the paper a certain surface properties, you can also add the paper coating consisting of complex mixtures of compounds; For the production of paper in different colors. 
It should be noted that after the preparation of paper pulp, begin the process of refining the dough; Where they are entered into the polishing machine consisting of metal cylinder spin on top of each other; To produce a smooth surface paper suitable for printing, writing, and continue polishing process to become the dough very thin, with a soft feel, where they are left until completely dry, and then be cut up paper plates with sharp knives, rotary, and wrapped according to customers' request. 
- ↑ Osama Zeid Wehbe Sayadi, the most important inventions and discoveries in the history of humanity, page -. Adapted.
- ^ A b c w t h -, the investment map of rice straw proposed projects, page 60-65. Adapted.
- ^ A b -, pulp and paper industry, page 24-29. Adapted.
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