- 1 apple
- 2 nutritional value of apples
- 3 maintain the nutritional value of apples
- 4 health benefits of apples 4.1 Benefits There is no sufficient evidence on their effectiveness (Insufficient Evidence) 4.2 Studies about the benefits of apples
- 4.1 Benefits There is no sufficient evidence on their effectiveness (Insufficient Evidence)
- 4.2 Studies about the benefits of apples
- 5 References
Apple follows the (scientific name: Malus pumila) plant genus called Malus P. Mill; It belongs to the pink species that fall under the plant kingdom. The apple trees one of the most common types of fruit trees cultivation, the size of an apple tree ranges between small to medium; Which extends the length of the tree between five to ten meters, and back out of this tree to Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and then spread later in most temperate regions of the world. It is worth mentioning that the apple fruit contains many nutrients; Such as, metals, vitamins, in addition to fiber, and thus provide a number of health benefits that will reduce the risk of many diseases; Such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's, and dental problems, it should be noted that most of the species are eaten fresh or used in cooking, and in the manufacture of some types of baked goods.  
The nutritional value of apples
As we mentioned earlier; The apple fruit of foods rich in nutritional elements useful, such as:
- Carbohydrates: as it is one of the basic components of the apple, it is rich in sugars simple Calverkm, sucrose, glucose, plus some carbohydrates in it exist in the form of fibers, but mostly in the form of sugars, as a result it contains a high amount of fiber and multi phenols it is one of the low index glycemic foods that ranges from $ 29 to 44, it should be noted that the index glycemic reflects the ability of the effect of the type of food to raise the level of sugar in the blood, and is this decline as a good measure linked to many health benefits.  
- Fiber: British National Health Service, known Acronym indicated by NHS that diet rich in fiber may contribute to the reduction of the development of many diseases, such as heart disease, strokes, and bowel cancer,  In addition it may help to reduce the high proportion of bad cholesterol in the blood,  it is worth mentioning that most of the amount of fiber available in apples are found in the cortex, according to what was said Dianne Hyson researcher nutrition from the University of California,  in the absence of eating shell, the person will not get all the benefits owned by apple, such as some of the nutrients that may maintain heart health and reduce the risk of certain cancers, including: the element chromium, plant compounds that affect as antioxidants called multiple Balfinolat. 
- Vitamins and minerals: Although the apple contains many vitamins and minerals by simple, but it can be considered as a good source of vitamin C, which is one of the antioxidant vitamins that are available in most types of fruit, and contributes to many of the important functions in the body, the metal food It is the most prominent potassium; Which in turn may be useful in maintaining heart health when consumed at high rates.
- Plant compounds: apple contains many plant compounds antioxidant responsible for many of the functions important for the health of the body, including the following:  Alkirsatin: There is this compound in many plant foods, and owns properties reduce inflammation,  and anti-virus,  in addition to the properties reduce the risk of cancer, , or the occurrence of depression, , based on what I said several studies conducted on animals only.  Alkatychen: It is an antioxidant naturally there are also high rates in green tea, has indicated an animal study at Johns Hopkins University in 2014 that this article contributes to the improvement of brain function,   As pointed out another study also conducted on animals at Wayne State University in 2011 to this article also contribute to maintaining muscle functions.   Chlorogenic acid: There is this article also in coffee by high, studies have shown that this acid has antioxidant and inflammatory properties, also has a role in regulating the operations of carbohydrate metabolism and fat, according to a review published in the European journal of nutrition in 2017. 
- Alkirsatin: There is this compound in many plant foods, and owns properties reduce inflammation,  and anti-virus, , in addition to the characteristics reduce the risk of cancer, , or the occurrence of depression, , based on what reported several studies conducted on animals only. 
- Alkatychen: It is an antioxidant naturally there are also high rates in green tea, has indicated an animal study at Johns Hopkins University in 2014 that this article contributes to the improvement of brain function,   As pointed out another study also conducted on animals at Wayne State University in 2011 to this article also contribute to maintaining muscle functions.  
- Chlorogenic acid: There is this article also in coffee by high, studies have shown that this acid has antioxidant and inflammatory properties, also has a role in regulating the operations of carbohydrate metabolism and fat, according to a review published in the European journal of nutrition in 2017. 
As for the nutritional value in 100 grams of apples, they are shown in the following table: 
Maintain the nutritional value of apples
Recommended Apple store and save it and cook it as it is to maintain its nutritional value, and can be taken in many shapes and flavors, and the method used then a big role in it, for example; Can Apple eat raw with peel-shaped slices, or small cubes, or grated, in order to obtain the greatest possible nutritional value of it, but if eating cooked should be cut up apple fruit into large slices before cooking directly instead of cutting it in advance and put them in the water or exposed to air or light, and contributes to maintaining the greatest possible nutrients and reduce the missing ones, as some of these elements dissolve in the water when you soak the apple; As vitamin C, is a good and useful ways to cook healthy apples also bread. 
It is noteworthy that a large proportion of nutrients and plant compounds useful are present under the crust directly, so it is best to leave the apple shell when cooked to get these nutrients and fiber that they contain even though the recipe recommends otherwise, but for to avoid turning the color of apple slices to brown these slides can be placed in a dish and add a tablespoon of lemon juice rich in vitamin c, and if the desire to store apple slices can be stored Bakecrha in a plastic bag in the freezer in order to maintain their nutritional value. 
Apple Health Benefits
Benefits There is not enough evidence of effectiveness (Insufficient Evidence)
Apple provides many health benefits, but Aldasat did not confirm its effectiveness after and recall of the most important benefits of the following:
- Contribute to weight reduction: The apple is rich in fiber and a bit of calories so the eating reduces total calorie intake per day, and contribute to increasing the feeling of fullness, and promote weight reduction in the long term, and consumed between meals or before it may be a good addition to the diet reduced the weight; A study reported lasted 12 weeks, from Rio de Janeiro University in 2003 that women who suffer from overweight and student make a diet to reduce weight equivalent to one kilogram per month, and consumed 3 kernels of apples per day reduced their weight by about kg and a half, compared with those who consumed oats ; Where they decreased their weight equivalent to 0.88 kg,  and can eat apples as a snack in order to reduce the calories consumed and get the largest proportion of nutrients useful rather than a share of fried potato chips, or you can add peanut butter to apple slice as a substitute for bread High-calorie biscuits or chips.  
- Reduce the risk of diabetes: as the apple content of plant chemicals (in English: Phytonutrients) contributes to avoid the sudden rise in blood sugar levels, through the inhibition of enzymes that contribute to the conversion of carbohydrates into simple sugars, or by stimulating cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin, or reducing the absorption of sugar in the blood, and recommended eating apples with the peel to get this interest as it contains the largest proportion of antioxidants Calfanolat that are easily absorbed and fiber compared to other fruits consumed in the United States,  it has been associated with eating the fruit of one apple or more than a day to reduce the risk of developing diabetes type II by 28%, according to one study conducted at Brigham and women's Hospital in Boston in the United States in 2005 and included 38.018 women aged 45 or older.  
- Relieve heart problems: it has been shown to increase the consumption of fruit by Chinese adults may be associated with reducing blood pressure and the level of glucose, thereby reducing the risk of heart disease, according to a preliminary study conducted in China and published in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine in 2016, 22] but on the other hand is the information about the amount consumed quantity of fruit or kind in order to reduce the risk of heart disease a few, also notes that people higher consumption of fruit follow usually healthy habits, may affect the results of the study, but in general can be considered fruit good factor in improving the health of the heart and blood vessels. 
- Reduce the risk of cancer: fiber and plant compounds found in apples as antioxidants affect, and can contribute in the fight against exposed DNA cells to oxidative stress; Which is the beginning of the development of cancer, and in fact, studies on animals and cells indicated that the chemicals in apples may limit the growth of new cancer cells, as well as to reduce the spread of existing cancer cells, although variation of the results of studies conducted on humans depending of all kinds, but some of the evidence indicated that increased intake of fruits, especially apples contribute to reducing the risk of developing lung cancer, especially in smokers or had smoked previously, such as the study of the European survey future on Cancer and nutrition, known for short as EPIC, which was issued from Oxford University and conducted 500,000 people, 
- Reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease: published a study released from Gyeongsang National University in Korea in 2008 showed that eating apples would improve the health of the nervous system, and consumed within the diet can protect nerve cells from exposure to oxidative stress catalyst nerve toxicity, in addition to the possibility of its contribution to reducing the risk of degenerative disorders of nerve, such as Alzheimer's disease.  
- Reduce dental plaque: (English: Tooth plaque); Eating apples may contribute to the cleaning of the teeth and gums, as well as it has anti-bacterial properties, it is possible to stimulate the salivary glands to produce saliva, which reduces the ability of bacteria to reproduce. 
Studies about the benefits of apples
Taking place at the present time many studies to determine the health benefits of apples and recall of these studies as follows:
- A study published in the Journal of Nutrition Academy and diets conducted on menopausal women who ate dried apples or dried plum daily for a year, and was the result of this study that women who ate dried apples LDL cholesterol decreased to have increased by 24% after months, the first six to a year of study, total cholesterol also dropped by 13%. this is a good result compared with those who ate dried plums; Where Alchollstrulaldhar to have decreased by 8% and total cholesterol by 3.5% during the whole study period. 
- A study published in Experimental Biology Journal and Medicine in 2006 indicated that the apple content of a compound Alkirsatin antioxidant helped to reduce the incidence of cell death caused by oxidation and inflammation of neurons, and in addition it has been found in a study from the University of Massachusetts in 2006, which was conducted on mice suffer from symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease to increase the consumption of apple juice may contribute to stimulate the brain to produce the future of acetylcholine, thereby contributing to improved memory.  
- In a study conducted at the National Public Health Institute in Helsinki in 2000 on 9,208 persons of males and females over the age of 15 years; That people who ate apples continuously for more than 28 years were less likely to have strokes.  
- ↑ " Apple Tree", www.nps.gov,26-2-2015، Retrieved 24-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Lari Warjri (20-3-2015), "Health Benefits of Eating Apples"، www.medindia.net, Retrieved 24-9-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت Barbie Cervoni (5-9-2019), "Apple Nutrition Facts"، www.verywellfit.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ Atli Arnarson (8-5-2019), "Apples 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits"، www.healthline.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "How to get more fibre into your diet", www.nhs.uk,1-8-2018، Retrieved 17-10-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت Joseph Nordqvist (11-4-2017), "Apples: Health benefits, facts, research"، www.medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Dianne Hyson, "Check Up on Health: Apples offer some surprising health benefits"، www.health.ucdavis.edu, Retrieved 17-10-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب Krish Tangella (4-6-2018), "7 Health Benefits Of Apples"، www.dovemed.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Laura Stewarta, Jeff Soileaub, David Ribnicky and others (7-2008), "Quercetin transiently increases energy expenditure but persistently decreases circulating markers of inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.", Metabolism, Issue 7, Folder 57, Page S39-S46. Edited.
- ↑ .Gary Spedding, Anil Ratty, Elliott Middleton Jr (1989), "Inhibition of reverse transcriptases by flavonoids", Antiviral Research, Issue 2, Folder 12, Page 99-110. Edited.
- ↑ Murakami Akira Murakamia, Hitoshi Ashida, Junji Terao (2008), "Multitargeted cancer prevention by quercetin.", Cancer Letters, Issue 2, Folder 269, Page 315-325. Edited.
- ↑ Yan Hou, Marwa A. Aboukhatwa, Kebreten Manaye,YanHou, Marwa Aboukhatwa and others (5-2010), "Anti-depressant natural flavonols modulate BDNF and beta amyloid in neurons and hippocampus of double TgAD mice", Neuropharmacology, Issue 6, Folder 58, Page 911-920. Edited.
- ↑ Che‐Feng Chang, Suzy Cho And Jian Wang (24-3-2014), "(-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways", Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Issue 4, Folder 1, Page 258–271. Edited.
- ↑ Leonardo Nogueira, Israel Ramirez‐Sanchez, Guy Perkins And Others (2-8-2011), "(–)‐Epicatechin enhances fatigue resistance and oxidative capacity in mouse muscle", The Journal of Physiology, Issue 18, Folder 589, Page 258–271. Edited.
- ↑ Tajik, N., Tajik, M., Mack, I. and Enck, P. (2017), "Tajik, N., Tajik, M., Mack, I., & Enck, P. (2017). The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature.", European journal of nutrition, Issue 7, Folder 56, Page 215-2244. Edited.
- ↑ "Apple, raw", www.fdc.nal.usda.gov,4-2018، Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب Helen Bond (25-1-2019), "Will an apple a day keep the doctor at bay?"، www.netdoctor.co.uk, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ MariaConceição de OliveiraDa, RoselySichieri, Anibal Sanchez Moura (3-2003), "Weight Loss Associated With a Daily Intake of Three Apples or Three Pears Among Overweight Women☆", Nutrition, Issue 3, Folder 19, Page 253-256. Edited.
- ↑ Andrea Boldt, "What Are the Benefits From Eating an Apple?"، www.livestrong.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب Barbara H. Seeber, "6 Fantastic Health Benefits of Apples"، www.everydayhealth.com, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE And Others (2005), "Associations of dietary flavonoids with risk of type 2 diabetes, and markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in women: a prospective study and cross-sectional analysis.", The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Issue 5, Folder 24, Page 376-384. Edited.
- ↑ Huaidong Du, Liming Li, Derrick Bennett, and others (7-4-2016), "Fresh Fruit Consumption and Major Cardiovascular Disease in China", The New England Journal of Medicine,Issue 14, Folder 374, Page 1332-1343. Edited.
- ↑ Thomas M. Campbell (11-4-2016), "Could an Apple a Day Keep Heart Disease Away?"، www.urmc.rochester.edu, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Kathryn Bradbury, Paul Appleby, Timothy Key (11-6-2014), "Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) ", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Issue suppl_1, Folder 100, Page 394S–398S. Edited.
- ↑ Roberto Fabiani , Liliana Minelli and Patrizia Rosignoli (22-3-2016), "Apple intake and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies", Public Health Nutrition, Issue 14, Folder 19, Page 2603-2617. Edited.
- ↑ "Apples", www.hsph.harvard.edu, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ H.J. Heo, S.J. Choi, S.‐G. Choi And Others. (3-2008), "Effects of Banana, Orange, and Apple on Oxidative Stress‐Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells", Journal of Food Science, Issue 2, Folder 73, Page H28-H32. Edited.
- ^ أ ب Chai SC, Hooshmand S, Saadat RL, et al (27-7-2012), "Two apples a day 'keeps heart doctor away'"، www.nhs.uk, Retrieved 25-9-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Chan Amy, Graves Valerie, Shea Thomas (8-2006), "Apple juice concentrate maintains acetylcholine levels following dietary compromise.", Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Issue 3, Folder 9, Page 287-291. Edited.
- ↑ P Knekt , S Isotupa, H Rissanen And Others. (2000), "Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume , Issue 5, Folder 54, Page 415–417. Edited.
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