Definition of Jupiter

Definition of Jupiter


  • 1 Jupiter
  • 2 orbit rotation of Jupiter
  • 3 Buyer structure 3.1 The atmosphere of Jupiter 3.2 zones and belts 3.3 Red Spot on Jupiter 3.4 internal structure of Jupiter
  • 3.1 The atmosphere of Jupiter
  • 3.2 zones and belts
  • 3.3 Red Spot on Jupiter
  • 3.4 internal structure of Jupiter
  • 4 moons of Jupiter
  • 5 rings of Jupiter
  • 6 Date of Jupiter
  • 7 the importance of Jupiter in the solar system
  • 8 References


The Jupiter (in English: Jupiter) fifth planets of the solar system distant from the sun; The average distance between him and the sun 5.2 astronomical units (AU) which is equivalent to 778 340 821 km, and this distance is five times the distance between the sun and the planet, as it is the largest planet ever Vhgmeh alone larger than the size of all the planets combined as a diameter when the line area equator has its own about 143 thousand kilometers, and it should be noted that the buyer revolves around the sun in a very large period of time; As one cycle of Jupiter around the Sun takes 12 Earth years to complete. [1]

Named as the buyer of Jupiter named after the king of the gods in ancient Romanian mythology, and the buyer of many episodes that surround it also contains its orbit 79 satellites belonging to him, the buyer about the same spins and double the speed of rotation of the planet Earth almost quickly; Where the completion can one course on almost the same every 10 hours, and is considered Jupiter of the most celestial bodies brighter in space Vespgah so Earth's moon and the planet Venus and sometimes Mars some second and considered more planets brighter after the planet Venus, is Jupiter closer in composition to the stars of the planets as if it was larger than the current size of four-fifth times it would have been a star rather than a planet. [1] [2]

Over the rotation of Jupiter

The Jupiter rotates around the sun once every 4,333 Earth days which is equivalent to 12-year-old ground and this straight spin almost as the equator of the planet line tilted by three degrees only from the sun, and spins Jupiter around itself very quickly reach once every 10 hours, due to the large speed of the planet's rotation around the same day on Jupiter is the shortest days in the entire solar system planets. [3]

Buyer structure

The atmosphere of Jupiter

Of temperatures in Jupiter are very high levels in the proximity of the center of the planet, where you may reach approximately 24 thousand degrees Celsius, more than the surface temperature of the sun's heat, but this heat goes down very significantly in the clouds surrounding the planet to reach about 145 degrees Celsius below zero, [4] and surrounds Jupiter magnetic field with a strength very formidable up to about 20 thousand times the field strength of your magnetic planet, and created this magnetic field through the electrical currents produced by the rapid rotation of the buyer, and this includes a magnetic field large packages of charged particles and radiation consisting of electrons and ions in addition to the moons of Jupiter and its rings, which are located within this strong magnetic field. [5]

The atmosphere of Jupiter is composed of many different layers characterized by intensive upper parts thereof and high temperatures, and made up the atmosphere of this planet primarily from the partial hydrogen molecular and helium in addition to many other chemical elements in small quantities such as water, methane and carbon dioxide in addition to liquid helium which is found in the inner layers of the atmosphere, and when you move to the inner layers of the atmosphere for the buyer of hydrogen there is a metal to be connected to the power supply in these layers, the atmosphere of the buyer and contains three layers of clouds consisting of HCl ammonium and ice ammonia and a mixture of ice and water; Who discovered the presence of scientists in quantities less than expected on the planet. [5] [6]

Areas and belts

Consists of Jupiter in general clouds and visual make up of ammonia gas while water vapor may exist in the inner depths, this might be steam visible in the clouds through the phenomenon of points in the clouds, spread clouds are formed in the buyer through two main and two regions (English : zones) are those classes that appear in white, belts (in English: belts), a dark and gloomy classes, made up areas and packages as a result of the rapid rotation of Jupiter; Doing so is the emergence of strong currents of the permanent wind that blows toward the east or west on the planet and be the wind at full strength on the boundary between the belts and areas, moving hurricane zones and belts towards amphibolous While the hurricane areas rotates clockwise in the hemisphere in the northern direction of counter-clockwise in the southern half, the hurricane belts move, unlike the movement of hurricanes areas. [5] [7] [8]

Red Spot on Jupiter

Consider what is known as the red slick giant (English: Great Red Spot) more phenomena that characterize Jupiter, known as the red spot as a giant big storm has been observed for more than three centuries and the amount of size enough breadth three times the size of the Earth where, since observed and these are still the storm that result in slick red continuous and non-stop, some see that spot the red giant, which is referred to as the abbreviation (GRS) is the oldest storms located across the planets as well as the largest, some scientific studies conducted in 1880 indicated that this giant slick stretches along up to 39,000 km between both sides of the east and west while the display extends over 12,500 km between the sides of the north and the south, has seen the length of that spot decline since that date where the current length and trapped between both sides of the east and the west up to 17,000 km. [9 ] [8]

The internal structure of Jupiter

Believes that Jupiter has a dense nucleus surrounded by hydrogen and helium envelope as well as some of the heavy elements that may be simple in the nucleus of the planet and are distributed uniformly across its cover often, but some studies suggest that these heavy elements confined between the outer shell molecular and between the inner atmosphere of hydrogen metal are separate and unrelated. [10]

Moons of Jupiter

Surrounds Jupiter's 67 moons, there are 53 satellites, including the names of well-known, and 14 of which another has recently scientists heading off, saw the year 2011, the latest satellite discovery of the planet, and the buyer four large moons known satellite Galilean (in English: Galilean satellites) relative to the discoverer, astronomer Italian Galileo Galilei who discovered the four large satellites of the famous buyer and in the year 1610, shows the following satellites Galilean and some of their characteristics: [4]

  • Moon Ganymede: (in English: Ganymede), is the largest moon Ganymede satellites in the solar system satellites and the largest affiliate of the buyer; With a diameter of 5,262 kilometers to be the moon larger than the planet Mercury, an icy moon with the topography of grooved casing air is very thin, which is the seventh closest planet to Jupiter, where away the approximate distance of 671 thousand kilometers, and this planet has its own magnetic cover, and would other satellites like the naming of some dating back to Ganymede mythology ancient Greek and Romanian. [11]
  • Moon Callisto: (English: Callisto), is the moon Callisto's second-largest moon in the moons of Jupiter as a diameter of 4,800 kilometers, which is the eighth closest satellite to Jupiter, the planet and the advantage of its surface etched, which is a satellite icy, referred to as the Galileo mission was able to discover the atmosphere of this moon is very thin, has been named for the ancient Greek myth. [12]
  • Moon Io: (English: Io), which is the third-largest moon within the moons of Jupiter with a diameter of more than 3,630 kilometers, has been named this named after some of the ancient Romanian mythology, the moon Io is a different from the rest of the moons of the planet as it consists of formation mostly of iron, sulfur, and some rocky material as it develops different from the evolution of the rest of the satellites in a way, and the advantage of the moon Ayo containing surface on the active volcano phenomenon resulting in volcanic lava make life on this moon no, just the moon Io Jupiter distance of more than 420 a kilometer is the fifth in terms of the closest satellites to the planet ranked, and the moon Ayo an important influence on the terms of Jupiter's magnetic field that particles in the cover of Ayo implemented to the magnetic cover for the formation of a vicious with the effect of deep circular cloud on your planet's magnetosphere. [13]
  • Moon Europe: (English: Europa), is the moon Europe's fourth-largest satellites orbiting Jupiter droplet who is 3,138 kilometers, which is characterized by a similar size to the size of the planet, and is the moon 670.9 kilometers away meters from the buyer, and is considered the moon of Europe, which has been so named relative to the Greek legends of an ancient surface can be valid as it may contain water liquid form of life, and the spacecraft Galileo discovered the possibility of the presence of the perimeter under the icy surface located on the moon. [14]

Rings of Jupiter

Revolve around Jupiter series of loops that can not be easily seen from the Earth, so it has delayed the discovery of these special episodes such as the buyer to a few years; Where the space probe (Voyager 1) the discovery of the planet's rings in 1979 and was difficult to see these episodes being dark dramatically, which is made up of small parts of the dust that comes from the meteors that hit the small inner moons surface of Jupiter, and these rings three main parts , where he called on the inner part of these rings ring halo name (in English: halo ring) which is similar to the cloud, followed up what is known as the episode Home (English: main ring), a narrow and thin ring dramatically, while the outer ring of Jupiter's rings are known ring Gsampr (English: Gossamer Ring) It consists of two parts; Internal knows Bomalithia Gsampr (in English: Amalthea Gossamer) and external Buthaiba Gsampr known (in English: Thebe Gossamer). [15]

Date of Jupiter

Pointed out old assumptions for the emergence of Jupiter that the planet is a result of the condensation of the solar nebula primitive stemmed this hypothesis from the fact that there is a large proportion of hydrogen in the huge mass of Jupiter, but this theory Sawrha some doubt as it which must be the primary elements in proportions of the buyer equal for those in the sun, and this is what denies the evidence that found a difference in the proportions of elements between Jupiter and the sun, and featured some modern theories that dealt out to be Jupiter, which indicates that the planet contained a solid core size ten times the size of Earth. this nucleus formed the initial result form accumulations of ice, as a result of this pulp to be your planet, the air envelope of its own and began to take shape during the launch of planetary gases. [16]

Following is the atmosphere of the buyer and with the mass increase in the nucleus of the planet, the atmosphere will be able to attract gases to the solar nebula will then be able to form the cover of hydrogen and helium to forming your planet's atmosphere, which begins to mix with the surrounding atmosphere BLP planet to result in the presence of heavy elements attributed the fact that more than one of those ratios that are comparable to the elements in the sun, and this afternoon through the mass spectrometer tests in the probe Galileo. [16]

The importance of Jupiter in the solar system

The planet Jupiter has a great influence on the orbits of all the planets in the whole, especially the solar system planet, given the large mass possessed, as it has a bearing on the orbits of small objects that enter the solar system, and has the effect of rotation of Jupiter in the solar system large end may up to the small destruction of objects limit that could reach orbit, or he may work to throw it away from the entire solar system, and Jupiter great importance in preserving the planet and protect it from exposure of celestial bodies that might hit the ground, and examples of the land buyer protect happened in 1994 when he collided with Jupiter comet-Schoomaker Levy to prevent him from reaching the ground. [7]


  • ^ أ ب Tobias Chant Owen (18-10-2019), "Jupiter"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Hirovanaa Twist, "Solar System",, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Jupiter",,19-12-2019، Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "What Is Jupiter?",,10-8-2011، Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jupiter, USA: Nasa, Page 2. Edited.
  • ↑ "Jupiter",, Retrieved 5-1-2019. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب John W.McAnally, JUPITER, USA: Springer, Page 7،8،12،13. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب Andrew P. IngersollTimothy E. Dowling, Peter J. Gierasch ، And Others، Dynamics of Jupiter’s Atmosphere, Page 2،3،7. Edited.
  • ↑ ٌR.I.C Publication (2008), Astronomy, Australia: ٌR.I.C Publication, Page 29. Edited.
  • ↑ A. Vazan, R. Helled، M. Podolak، And Others (2016)، THE EVOLUTION AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF JUPITER AND SATURN, USA: The American Astronomical Society, Page 1. Edited.
  • ↑ Jennifer Bergman (16-9-2003), "Ganymede"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Jennifer Bergman (19-9-2003), "Callisto"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Jennifer Bergman (16-9-2003), "Io"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Roberta Johnson (17-9-2003), "Europa"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Randy Russell (20-9-2003), "The Rings of Jupiter"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب Tobias Chant Owen (18-10-2019), "Early history of Jupiter"،, Retrieved 5-1-2020. Edited.


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