- 1 corn
- 2 corn components
- 3 Date of corn
- 4 Corn properties
- 5 References
Corn is the smallest structural unit of the chemical element bearing his distinctive characteristics, which is the smallest part can be divided into the material without being freed electrically charged particles, and thus the basic structural unit of the material, and the science of chemistry as well. Because of the origin of the word corn (English: Atom) to the Latin word Otumus "atomus" which means indivisible; Because it was thought at the time that nothing is smaller than the atom, and it can not be divided into the atom.  
Contrary to previous beliefs, corn from the smallest parts, namely:  consists
- Nucleus (in English: Nucleus): the kernel is the central atom segment, which constitutes most of its mass, discovered physicist Ernest Rutherford (Ernest Rutherford) and the presence of the nucleus in 1911, and made up the nucleus of protons, neutrons, and cohere core components thanks to the forces of nuclear bonding (in English: strong force).
- Protons (in English: Protons): discovered Rutherford and the presence of charged particles positively charged into the nucleus, and he called protons, which is made up in turn three elementary particles called quarks (in English: Quark), and the consequences of quarks consisting of protons, two at the top and one down, and the proton small block is equal to 1.673 x10-27 kg.
- Neutrons (in English: Neutrons): particles of neutral (uncharged) exist within the nucleus assumed Rutherford existence in 1920, and discovered the world Chadwick (Chadwick) existence actually in 1932, the mass of neutrons slightly larger than the mass of protons and equal 1.6749x10-27, which is also made up of three quarks, but with a different order, one at the top and two at the bottom.
- Electrons (in English: Electrons): They charged particles negatively charged and attracted electrically positively charged protons, discovered the presence world British Joseph John Thomson (JJ Thomson) in 1897, a spin of electrons according to the model developed by the world Erwin Schrodinger in specific orbits around the nucleus, which is smaller than protons, neutrons and more than 1800 times; It is equal to its mass 9.109x10-31. Can by studying the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus to predict some of the physical properties of the atom, such as: the degree of stability, boiling point, and conductivity.
In 440 BC, assumed the philosopher Democritus (Democritus) that the material is made up of tiny particles that can not be divisible called atoms, and that the universe contains an infinite number of atoms that are constantly moving, and that atoms combine to be material, but they do not merge to be new atoms, Democritus presented atomic theory to the world at that time, but they were rejected by other philosophers, led by Aristotle (Aristotle), who was thought that everything was created from the ground, air, fire, and in 1803 the British chemist introduced John Dalton (John Dalton) Atomic theory formulated by after studying the ideas of Democritus, states his theory that one element atoms are similar, and that the atoms of different elements differ from each other in the weight and characteristics, and it can not be the creation or destruction of atoms, and that the material consists of the union of atoms together. 
In 1897 the world Thomson discovered the electron proved that the corn can be divided, and in the same year gave Thomson model pie raisins (in English: Plum Pudding Model) which represents corn as a positive ball charge in which negative minutes charge spread (electrons), are also distributed raisins beads in Pie, bringing corn to be neutral charge. In 1911 he published the world's Rutherford atomic theory, which states that the atom is composed of a small core size is positively charged, revolve around electrons, and that most of the empty corn space, then the world Niels Bohr (Niels Bohr) to clarify electrons characteristics, and after the world IRVINE came Schrödinger (Erwin Schrödinger) who developed the quantum atom model, and the world Werner Heisenberg (Werner Heisenberg), who stated that he can not know where the electron and its speed at the same time, then discovered two scientists (separately) Murray Gil Mann Murray Gell-Mann, and George Zweig (George Zweig) that both protons and neutrons are composed of quarks. 
Atoms are characterized by several characteristics, including:
- The atomic number of the element is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, which is that determines the chemical properties of the element. 
- Neutrophils corn is corn where the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. 
- The atomic mass of the element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, measured by unit (atomic mass), and equal to the atomic mass unit half block carbon atom. 
- Atomic mass less than the mass of the atom; Because the mass of the atom is made up of the nucleus mass in addition to the mass of electrons, which are of little mass compared to the mass of protons and neutrons. 
- For each chemical element of many isotopes (in English: Isotopes), which forms of the chemical element Dhirtha the same atomic number (number of protons), but differ in atomic mass because of the different number of neutrons, and chemical properties differ for the element and its counterpart. 
- Keeps electrons on track in orbits around the nucleus thanks to the forces of the tension that arises between the positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons. 
- The electron revolves around the nucleus, and at the same time is about the same, and this phenomenon is called the phenomenon of twisting spin or spin (in English: Spin), and this generates a torque magnetically amount 9.28x10-24 -. 
- There are electrons in successive levels called energy levels, and each level can accommodate a specific number of electrons, the first overall level can accommodate two electrons, while the second can accommodate eight electrons. 
- Up atoms to put stability, either losing electrons, or acquire, or share them. 
- Tend atoms that contain the last orbital electron, or two, or three electrons to lost when they interact with atoms containing in the last orbit five, or six, or seven electrons. 
- Tend atoms that contain five, or six, or seven electrons in the last orbit to gain electrons when they interact with atoms containing the last orbital electron, or two, or three electrons. 
- The atoms that contain four electrons in the last orbit of the loss or gain of electrons tend not. 
- ↑ "atom", www.dictionary.com, Retrieved 26-9-2017. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت ث Tim Sharp (8-8-2017), "What is an Atom"، /www.livescience.com, Retrieved 26-9-2017. Edited.
- ^ A b c h v w x "Atom", www.britannica.com, Retrieved 26-9-2017. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج " Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Structure of an Atom Top Structure of an Atom ", chemistry.tutorvista.com, Retrieved 26-9-2017. Edited.
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